Not too long ago, a friend of mine asked if I could answer an Italian question for her. I agreed, with the caveat that I don't speak fluent Italian---in fact, I wouldn't even say I speak Italian at all. But the question was easily answered by anyone with a background in any Romance language: she wanted to know whether it was correct to address her friend as "il mio caro Antonio". "Is it 'mio' because he's male, or 'mia' because I'm female?" I explained to her that it's only his gender that matters, and for the male Antonio one must use the masculine form 'mio' regardless of whether the speaker is male or female.
The question seemed initially simple, but it made me realize that the only case I can think of where a speaker's gender matters is Hebrew, where a verb takes different forms for male and female subjects. And yet, upon further research, I learned that this is really just a case of standard subject-verb agreement. It's not the speaker's gender that's important, but the subject of the verb (which is identical to the speaker in the first person, but isn't always). In the present tense, Hebrew doesn't have separate forms for first, second, and third persons, thus "I walk", "you walk", and "he walks" will all be expressed the same way if the walker is male, but a different way if the walker is female. This seems very strange to those of us used to Western languages. And on the opposite spectrum there are the far Eastern languages like Mandarin, where the gender of the subject is almost never expressed explicitly; I'm sure this is why many Chinese, when speaking English, frequently confuse "he" and "she".
My friend's Italian question reminded me of another curiosity, which is that possessive adjectives like "my" are used in conjunction with the definite article ("the my dear Antonio"). Surprisingly, this is not the case in French or Spanish, and Latin---from which Italian is most directly derived---doesn't even have definite articles. Ancient Greek does, however, and the construction is similar.